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Value Added Agri-foods in India: A Case Study
76,90 € *
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Food processing industry holds enormous significance for India's development because of the vital linkages and synergies that it promotes between the two pillars of economy namely industry and agriculture. Agricultural transformation through creation of forward and backward linkages with industry is a recently emerging phenomenon. Therefore the food processing industry in India is claiming a unique position in Indian economy in terms of its potential for employment generation, increasing the farmer's income and export growth. The focus on value addition in the agricultural sector is vital for comprehensive development of the rural economy. Considering India as an emerging value-added food market, effort has been made in this book to generate some new insights and stimulate additional research in the field of value added agri-food product consumption in India. The study is basically exploratory in nature and studies the urban market to explore the consumption and awareness levels of selected value added agri-food products and consumer perceptions towards packaging, labelling, branding, food safety, health and nutrition.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Determinants and Impacts of Smallhodler Collect...
22,92 € *
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Smallholders face numerous constraints that keep them from taking advantage of market opportunities. Because they often live in poverty and remoteness, on less than a hectare of land with poor road and market infrastructure, they face high costs of market exchange. In order for smallholders to compete with large-scale farms and benefit from the observed and ongoing transformation of the agri-food sector, institutional solutions are necessary that address the small scale problem. One potential option is through farmer collective action. However, the existing literature has not yet sufficiently identified the explicit mechanisms and dynamics by which collective action generates benefits for men and women. In three related articles, this research investigates how farmer groups facilitate access to input and output markets by reducing transaction costs, thereby promoting intensification and commercialization of small farms. It addresses the existing research gap by analyzing determinants, participation dynamics and impacts of farmer groups, using the case of small-scale banana producers in Kenya.For the analysis cross-sectional data from 444 farm households was collected in the central highlands region of Kenya, where bananas provide an important source of food and income. Recently established farmer groups initiated by two local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), TechnoServe and Africa Harvest, introduced institutional change in the national banana market chain. Within such groups, farmers can more easily access clean tissue culture (TC) banana planting material, get agronomic and market information, negotiate better prices and gain access to urban, high-value markets through collective selling. However, the marketing performance of these groups is unclear, and commitment varies greatly between members. Gender issues are partly left unaddressed by NGOs and group leadership. These issues pose serious threats to the groups’ viability in the long run.The first chapter focuses on the determinants and impacts of smallholder organization. Farmer groups are generally inclusive of the poor, although wealthier households are more likely to join. Access to credit plays a role, as the adoption of relatively costly TC planting material is technically encouraged among group members. Distance to paved roads and mobile phone ownership facilitate participation and thus have a positive effect on the likelihood of group membership. Employing a propensity score matching method to reduce possible selection bias in impact assessment, we show positive income effects for group members. However, the magnitude of the economic benefits correlates with the mode of participation, since we find positive income effects only for members selling through the group. A considerable number of members are not participating in collective marketing. Yet, price advantages of collective marketing are small, as highvalue market potentials have not yet been tapped. Increases in income therefore stem from specialization effects and the expansion of banana plantations, facilitated by the improved access to TC planting material. In addition, group members are more likely to follow good agricultural practices in banana cultivation. Hence, beyond prices, farmer groups function as important catalysts for innovation adoption through promoting efficient information flows. In conclusion, some of the motivations for collective action do not seem to apply in the case of banana in Kenya. With significant improvements in road infrastructure, supply chains have become relatively short over the past years. Nor do farmers suffer from monopsonic power of up- and downstream actors that could render collective bargaining beneficial. In terms of price benefits, farmer collective action may thus make more sense in high-value and export markets, which are more difficult to access for individual smallholders.The fact that the magnitude of benefits from group membership is linked to the degree of participation motivates the thematic focus in the second chapter. Within farmer groups, the commitment of individual members to achieve shared objectives can vary, because the expected net benefits are not the same for all, and opportunities to free-ride exist. Since the benefits of collective action emerge primarily through the exploitation of economies of scale, and services are financed through collective marketing, low participation rates in joint activities may jeopardize the performance and viability of farmer groups. The second chapter therefore investigates commitment to collective action in terms of participation intensity and free-riding. Sequential probit and doublehurdle regression models are used to explain participation in group meetings and collective marketing. The results suggest that family labor availability and previous benefits that members received through the groups positively influence their intensity of participation in group meetings and collective marketing. There is evidence that hints at a middle size effect. That is, those with very small and very large banana plantations are less likely to participate intensively in group activities, as their cost-benefit ratio is negative. Free-riding is mostly attributed to structural and institutional conditions, such as group size and the timing of payments. Furthermore, more diversified farmers are less likely to sell collectively. Since smallholders are often highly diversified in their agricultural activities, farmer groups should also diversify their activities to include more than one crop. These findings underline that it is important to go beyond considering participation in collective action as a binary variable. Commitment is not only influenced by opportunistic behavior but also by member constraints, which contribute to lower than optimal supply of collective goods and services. The knowledge of individual behavior and constraints allows policy makers to design and implement more successful and viable forms of collective action.Based on experiences from data collection in the field, men increasingly become involved in banana production, although banana traditionally belongs to the women’s sphere of control because of its importance as a semi-subsistence food crop. Although agricultural intensification and commercialization can have diverse effects on men and women, gender mainstreaming in farmer groups does not exist. The third chapter therefore investigates changes in gender relations due to group membership and related effects on household food security and nutrition. With membership in farmer groups, new economic opportunities emerge, which transform gender relations and may affect household welfare. Descriptive statistics are used to show that men increasingly become involved in banana production and revenue decisions when market and technology access improves. Controlling for possible selection bias, regression analysis suggests that dietary quality deteriorates when men seize control over revenues from banana production, although no effect on calorie supply can be observed. Finally, it is shown that female membership in farmer groups enables women to sustain their claims on banana output. Particularly the poorest women are thus able to increase their contribution to household income and strengthen their position within the household. Female membership enables women to better negotiate and sustain their claims on banana output within the family. These results emphasize the potential of farmer groups for the empowerment of women as farmers and as wives.The three chapters provide important insights into the distinct mechanisms of collective action by which benefits for smallholders emerge. In the case of staple foods, economic benefits emerge primarily through access to improved technology and information, since the motivation for market-oriented collective action may not hold as strongly as in high-value or export markets. Positive income effects in this concrete case can therefore mostly be attributed to specialization and intensification, which are important preconditions for smallholder commercialization. The binary definition of group membership used in most empirical studies may be misleading, as the costs and benefits of active participation may differ across individual members, so that different participation intensities are often observed. Knowledge of these differences allows policy makers to tackle some of the problems of farmer groups regarding market performance and viability in the longer term. Finally, farmer groups can be an important pro-poor tool for the empowerment of women. Yet, this potential has not yet been sufficiently explored by researchers and policy makers.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Sustainable Agriculture in Central and Eastern ...
27,99 € *
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For more than a decade the political and economic systems in Central and Eastern European Countries have passed through a process of fundamental transformation. In particular, the gricultural sectors of the transition countries have undergone dramatic changes. At the same time, farm privatisation, land reform, and restructuring have had great, but heterogeneous impacts on natural environments and ecosystems.Although decreasing agricultural production and lower farm inputs have reduced environmental pressures during the initial phases of transition, serious environmental and resource management problems still exist, and new issues have arisen in this area of decision making. Management of irrigation and drainage systems, water pollution and soil degradation, loss of biodiversity and conflicts between nature conservation and agricultural land use are examples. The transition countries certainly show high levels of biodiversity and possess numerous valuable habitats, but land abandonment, declining ecological value of landscapes, ageing rural populations and lacking social security can also be observed. In addition, agri-environmental policies, local insttutions for sustainable resource management and social cohesion in rural societies are often still less effective. This situation has given rise to strong expectations regarding the future role of the European Union in managing environmental resources and supporting rural development. This book assembles presentations by scientists and politicians from Central and Eastern as well as Western European Countries held on the occasion of an ACE Phare Seminar in September 2001, in Nitra, Slovakia. It aims at students and researchers engaged in agricultural or environmental sciences, in transition studies and European integration, and at government officials and actors from non-government organisation as well. It addresses all those who have an interest in the cross-cutting issues of sustainable agri-environmental development, transformation of agriculture and the Eastern enlargement of the European Union.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Trade Facilitation Capacity Needs
56,97 € *
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This book provides a comprehensive analysis of both national and regional trade facilitation capacities, issues, challenges and lessons, with a special interest in sustainably advancing West Africa's regional trade facilitation agenda. It examines the contributions of trade facilitation towards enhancing regional integration and economic expansion in the face of increasing non-tariff barriers that highly characterises West African agri-food and non-agricultural markets. The authors recommend new conceptual frameworks, appropriate initiatives, and workable policy recipes towards enhancing West Africa's trade facilitation agenda as well as the regional economic transformation trajectory in the face of the ongoing African Continental Free Trade Agreements (AfCFTA). The book underscores the geopolitics, opportunities and challenges that confront West Africa in the increasingly dynamic regional trade facilitation policy space. Readers will learn how West Africa can improve its regional trade facilitation game amidst emerging capacity challenges.

Anbieter: Dodax
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Trade Facilitation Capacity Needs
68,90 CHF *
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This book provides a comprehensive analysis of both national and regional trade facilitation capacities, issues, challenges and lessons, with a special interest in sustainably advancing West Africa's regional trade facilitation agenda. It examines the contributions of trade facilitation towards enhancing regional integration and economic expansion in the face of increasing non-tariff barriers that highly characterises West African agri-food and non-agricultural markets. The authors recommend new conceptual frameworks, appropriate initiatives, and workable policy recipes towards enhancing West Africa's trade facilitation agenda as well as the regional economic transformation trajectory in the face of the ongoing African Continental Free Trade Agreements (AfCFTA). The book underscores the geopolitics, opportunities and challenges that confront West Africa in the increasingly dynamic regional trade facilitation policy space. Readers will learn how West Africa can improve its regional trade facilitation game amidst emerging capacity challenges.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Agricultural Standards
175,90 CHF *
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Food and agricultural standards have recently risen to the top of both national and international agendas. Popular concerns about the power of the World Trade Organization focus on the intertwined relationships between environmental protection, labor and human rights, and the standards used to produce and supply our food and fiber globally. In the developing world, agricultural grades and standards are an important part of the reconfiguration of roles and responsibilities between various public and private actors in market reform. This original and informative collection of studies of agri-food standards in the modern economy addresses these and helps to define the scope of the emerging study of the politics of standards setting. Following an overview essay dealing with the multiple ways of thinking about, approaching and defining food and agricultural standards, eleven case studies offer a rich body of evidence that assesses the processes, dynamics and potential consequences of global agri-food standards. For all interested in the strategic use of food and agricultural standards - from those in national and international governmental agencies, researchers and others in the academic and private sector to those in the private business sector - this volume offers a broader perspective on and will serve as an important resource. TOC:Part 1: Thinking about Standards.- Introduction: A New World of Standards.- Part 2: Public and International Standards.- The World Trade Organization.- Circulations of Insecurity: Globalizing Food Standards in Historical Perspective.- The International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV) and the World Trade Organization (WTO): Standardization Issues in the Wine Sector.- Part 3: Regulatory Processes.- Negotiating Standards for Animal Products: A Procedural Approach Applied to Raw Milk.- The Indivisibility of Science, Policy and Ethics: Starlink(TM) Corn and the Making of Standards.- Standards and State-Building: The Construction of Soybean Standards in Brazil.- Paradoxes of Innovation: Standards and Technical Change in the Transformation of the US Soybean Industry.- Part 4: Access and Ethical Trade.- Defining a Good Steak: Global Constructions of what is Considered The Best Red Meat.- Improving the Access of Small Farmers in Africa to Global Markets through the Development of Quality Standards for Pigeonpeas.- China and Global Organic Food Standards: Sovereignty Bargains and Domestic Politics.- Cotton in West Africa: A Question of Quality.- Part 5: Conclusions and Future Agenda.- Shaping a Policy and Research Agenda.- Index.

Anbieter: Orell Fuessli CH
Stand: 08.04.2020
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Agricultural Standards
143,00 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

Food and agricultural standards have recently risen to the top of both national and international agendas. Popular concerns about the power of the World Trade Organization focus on the intertwined relationships between environmental protection, labor and human rights, and the standards used to produce and supply our food and fiber globally. In the developing world, agricultural grades and standards are an important part of the reconfiguration of roles and responsibilities between various public and private actors in market reform. This original and informative collection of studies of agri-food standards in the modern economy addresses these and helps to define the scope of the emerging study of the politics of standards setting. Following an overview essay dealing with the multiple ways of thinking about, approaching and defining food and agricultural standards, eleven case studies offer a rich body of evidence that assesses the processes, dynamics and potential consequences of global agri-food standards. For all interested in the strategic use of food and agricultural standards - from those in national and international governmental agencies, researchers and others in the academic and private sector to those in the private business sector - this volume offers a broader perspective on and will serve as an important resource. TOC:Part 1: Thinking about Standards.- Introduction: A New World of Standards.- Part 2: Public and International Standards.- The World Trade Organization.- Circulations of Insecurity: Globalizing Food Standards in Historical Perspective.- The International Office of Vine and Wine (OIV) and the World Trade Organization (WTO): Standardization Issues in the Wine Sector.- Part 3: Regulatory Processes.- Negotiating Standards for Animal Products: A Procedural Approach Applied to Raw Milk.- The Indivisibility of Science, Policy and Ethics: Starlink(TM) Corn and the Making of Standards.- Standards and State-Building: The Construction of Soybean Standards in Brazil.- Paradoxes of Innovation: Standards and Technical Change in the Transformation of the US Soybean Industry.- Part 4: Access and Ethical Trade.- Defining a Good Steak: Global Constructions of what is Considered The Best Red Meat.- Improving the Access of Small Farmers in Africa to Global Markets through the Development of Quality Standards for Pigeonpeas.- China and Global Organic Food Standards: Sovereignty Bargains and Domestic Politics.- Cotton in West Africa: A Question of Quality.- Part 5: Conclusions and Future Agenda.- Shaping a Policy and Research Agenda.- Index.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 08.04.2020
Zum Angebot
Trade Facilitation Capacity Needs
66,00 € *
ggf. zzgl. Versand

This book provides a comprehensive analysis of both national and regional trade facilitation capacities, issues, challenges and lessons, with a special interest in sustainably advancing West Africa's regional trade facilitation agenda. It examines the contributions of trade facilitation towards enhancing regional integration and economic expansion in the face of increasing non-tariff barriers that highly characterises West African agri-food and non-agricultural markets. The authors recommend new conceptual frameworks, appropriate initiatives, and workable policy recipes towards enhancing West Africa's trade facilitation agenda as well as the regional economic transformation trajectory in the face of the ongoing African Continental Free Trade Agreements (AfCFTA). The book underscores the geopolitics, opportunities and challenges that confront West Africa in the increasingly dynamic regional trade facilitation policy space. Readers will learn how West Africa can improve its regional trade facilitation game amidst emerging capacity challenges.

Anbieter: Thalia AT
Stand: 08.04.2020
Zum Angebot